Welcoming Change Whilst in the Realm of Agile Software Development

One of the most difficult principles of Agile Software Development to actually implement is the principle of welcoming change. Two of the statements of values in the Agile manifesto are:Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a planBoth of these statements lead to the idea that Agile Software Development welcomes changes from customers and other stakeholders in the project. The Software Development team aims to gather feedback by developing frequent releases through developing the software in a series of iterations. A customer, changing their minds concerning the requirements of a project, isn’t viewed as a problem, which can be in sharp contrast to how a lot of methodologies approach the topic of requirements changing. This incorporation of feedback and customer involvement is an important contribution to the success of Agile methodologies as it leads to the development of software that customers really want. Following this principle is no easy task because the application of this principle needs to start at the very beginning of a project. Guides to implementing Agile Software Development frequently mention the role of the executive sponsor, and other business oriented roles within a company which need to buy-in and support an initiative to introduce Agile Software Development. But in a Software Development company that develops bespoke software directly for customers, the business people in the company need to understand and stick to the principles of Agile Software Development likewise.There may be support for Agile Software Development in a project of all members but the general perception amongst the business people is that it is one area which the developers do, and does not directly concern them. As much of the material available on Agile Software Development does specifically concern Software Development teams, that is quite an understandable assumption to make. In a company developing bespoke software, the client needs to be made aware of the nature of an Agile Software Development project, and a contract needs to be negotiated that is compatible with the chosen methodology. And it’s the business people who are associated with a project that usually hold the responsibility of setting the customer’s expectations for a project and negotiating the contract.Customers not really acquainted with Software Development expect that when negotiating a new project with a Software Development company that the process is quite like purchasing almost every other goods and services. The client explains what they need, they agree a price together with a delivery date, and the customer then waits for it to be achieved. The Software Development company will not want to challenge these expectations for the fear of making a customer uncomfortable, and potentially losing their business. This often leads to a binding agreement that mirrors these expectations. The customer continues to expect that the software, by the release date, is going to be ready and do everything the customer wants, and they only need to wait.However it is inevitable that the customer will need to provide feedback on the software and will be very keen to make some changes. In the above scenario the client is going to find themselves giving their feedback at a time towards the release date when they actually get to see the software.These changes are unlikely to be very welcome to the Software Development company at this point. In practice these requests for changes results in friction between the customer and the Software Development company, possibly bringing about arguments between the company and the customer. The company will believe that these requirements wasn’t specified originally when the contract was signed and demand additional cash to implement these changes. If the customer agrees, a new contract will need to be negotiated. On the other hand the company may agree to do these changes for free given that the customer is without a doubt quite upset that the software does not do what the customer wants. The more often these changes are handled for free; the company gets closer to generating a loss on the project. In both of these scenarios, the project is sure to be late.If the development team itself is trying to be Agile and is developing the project in iterations, the case is often improved through getting feedback from the customer earlier on in the project. But if the contract remains to be the same, these changes will still be unwelcome to the business people associated with the project. They will be seen as an extra expense and the developers are going to be instructed to extend the time on making these changes until a new or revised contract can be negotiated. Once the business people perceive that changes will be happening between iterations and that this needs addressing, they should recognise that a new approach will probably be required in future for making new contracts with customers. An effective option that they might choose is to try to break down the ‘development’ of the project into separate, ready planned phases and then make this the substance of the contract. This approach doesn’t challenge the customer’s expectations of being certain of the outcome of a project, and so it appears like a safe option. At the start of a project, a customer is frequently quite positive that they know what they aspire to. In practice, actually seeing and using the software might most likely make the customer consider the project in a whole lot more depth than they had previously.This phased approach to making contracts is not going to solve the issue of welcoming changes and introduces new problems. When the first phase of the project completes, the customer gets to use the software for the first time and starts making requests for changes. As a consequence the next phase will have to be planned again. If the original phases were time estimated then the next phase will require a new estimation from the development team. And the business people will have to create a new contract for the next phase. Normally, this approach will demand a large administrative overhead for relatively small amounts of work. The customer can also be likely to get impatient over the length of time it takes just to get some more work done. More steps need to be taken to effectively develop within an iterative fashion.In an ideal scenario, the people setting the customer’s expectations for the project would have bought in to the concept of Agile Software Development and grasp the principles involved. They would have the responsibility of also convincing the customer of these benefits and negotiating a contract that works well with their chosen methodology. Three typical customer expectations shall be challenged during this process:that they already know exactly what they want
that they can be certain of what to expect at the end of the project
that the Software Development company is exclusively responsible for the success of the projectTo convince the customer that developing the project the Agile way is a good idea; the benefits need to be emphasised:That they can change their minds if they want, when they want
Their changes will be incorporated in to their application quickly with minimal administrative overhead
They will not have to wait long to see their changes in the software
The application developed will be what they want it to be not now but what they want on the release date
They will have an important role in guiding the development of the project throughout its developmentThere are of course trade-offs for these benefits:The customer can’t be certain what they are certain to get at the end of the project when signing the contract
The criteria for the success of the project will change with time and will not be stated explicitly in the contract as a detailed specification
The customer must take an enthusiastic role participating in the project. The project’s success all hangs on on the effectiveness of the collaboration between the customer and the Software Development team.
The customer will have to prioritise their changes, choosing which ones are developed first and which of them have to be dropped when necessaryA compatible contract will likely not state a detailed project plan, and make that plan a binding agreement for the Software Development company. General, advanced level requirements will be used as the success criteria for the project.In return the contract will enable the customer to request changes to the project when the customer wants to. A formal definition of how changes are handled will be included in the contract. This definition will match the methodology used by the Software Development team. With most Agile methodologies this will mean that the development team will incorporate these changes in the next iteration following the change request from the customer. The contract will also not contain specific time estimations for high level requirements. It will instead contain an iteration schedule. A contract that welcomes change is a contract that does not have to be changed.While the process described is known as change, this term doesn’t accurately describe the all that is taking place. A changing business environment can motivate changes in requirements but what is happening most often is the creation of new ideas for the software from both the customers and the development team. It is part of the creative process that makes the software and it is definitely something that ought to be welcomed.

The Twenty-Four Hour News Cycle – Another Modern TV Innovation

In the days before expanded TV programming, my access to news was somewhat limited. I could tune in the 6 PM National Network News shows… stay tuned at 6:30 P.M. for the local news stories… return at 10 P.M. or 11 P.M. for any late-breaking stories.Then, of course, I could buy a daily newspaper, sometimes two or even a third, to get a different slant on the same news stories… or even information about a story that didn’t show up on the TV news program.That wasn’t bad, but it’s nothing like what is available to me today. To begin, I have access to a personal computer. That enables me to read newspapers online for daily information plus access blogs for political and world news. I have a radio… so I can listen to news and information shows in which political opinions about events are expressed every day. They’re informative and entertaining.But, the best option I have, the one I enjoy more than any other is the non-stop access to news and information available to me as a subscriber to a TV programming service that gives me an almost unlimited menu of TV shows that I can watch and enjoy, including many around-the-clock, “all news-all the time” networks.The most prominent of these networks are all Cable News Services – Fox Cable News Network… MSNBC (owned and operated by NBC, of course)… and CNN (Cable News Network), the originator of the Total News Network format.If you like news and opinions on news and politics, you are sure to love any, or all, of these networks. They don’t disappoint because their programming is continuous – always on – and they are able to cover “breaking stories” 24-hours a day, seven days a week, something the major networks can’t match. That means a story that unfolds at 3 A.M. will be covered by a Cable News Network reporter as it occurs. There has never been that kind of instant, on-the-spot coverage on news and events in history, certainly not in the earlier days of television.But, this is the 21st Century. TV is better than ever before, thanks to the good work of programming providers. They provide a great service and I’m a fortunate beneficiary.Author: Frank Bilotta

Five Reasons to Enroll in a Healthcare Administration Program

A healthcare administration degree can help you pursue a bright and enriching career, whether you’re a professional inside the industry or someone keen to break into it. Of course, it requires about four years or more of sweat, toil, anxiety, and money before you can start reaping the fruit of your labor.Only after you have successfully waded through the mountains of coursework; endured the stress of preparing project reports; fought sleep on study nights; and braved the anguish of assessment days are you finally ready to don the coveted graduation gown and hat.But what have you worked so hard for? A bright and enriching career for sure, but what exactly makes it so? Here are five factors that may make a career in healthcare administration the stuff dreams are made of, and why enrolling in a healthcare administration degree program could be a smart choice.1. Job Security: Layoffs. Bankruptcies. Pay cuts. Reduced working hours. Decreased production. Diminishing demand. Whichever direction you turn, these are the words that cut like knife through your heart. Like it or not, such is the reality of the times we live in. Jobs are hard to come by and job security is a feeling that retired about the same time as our folks. Except for one bright spot that continues to shine through the dark clouds of economic recession: healthcare. The nature of the industry, which is among the largest employers in the country, makes it more or less resistant to financial ups and downs. Healthcare administration is one of the primary healthcare occupations and hence can offer stability and security at a time when almost every other industry seems to have been consumed by the recession.2. Employment Opportunities: Healthcare administrators held 303,000 jobs in the year 2010, and the profession is likely to add 68,000 more jobs through 2020*. The growth in employment of healthcare administrators is projected to be much faster than average for all occupations, spurred by an increase in the number of baby boomers reaching retirement age and requiring professional medical services. Clearly, there’s no dearth of jobs for graduates of healthcare administration degree programs.3. Paycheck: While puritans of academia will argue against the wisdom of treating college education as business investment, the current economic environment does not leave any room for being a romantic. The truth is that you spend a precious amount of money on getting a college degree and hence, are absolutely justified in expecting returns from it. The excellent ROI they offer is one of the biggest things going in favor of healthcare degrees. As for healthcare administrators, they can make up to $84,270 per year in this profession, depending on education, experience, and location**.4. Management Roles: Healthcare administrators are also called health service managers. Needless to say, it is a responsible position that can provide you a taste of life as a manager/leader. You make important decisions, you drive change, you decide business strategy, you implement organization-wide policies, you bring in improvements and efficiency, you attract talent, you mentor, you guide, you influence, and you impact how things function in your facility.Of course, specific roles depend on your qualification, specialty, and the size of the facility. In really large facilities, senior executive and management roles are typically reserved for graduates of Master’s in Health Care Administration programs or other business/healthcare degrees.5. Social Contribution: Healthcare administrators are not involved in direct patient care. They may not even visit patients all that often. But they touch the patient’s life on several levels. First, by continually making efforts to improve the quality of the healthcare delivery system. Second, by developing and leading healthcare outreach programs. Third, by advocating policy changes to improve the state of healthcare in society. And finally, by taking care of the more mundane details of running a healthcare facility, so doctors, nurses, and other primary healthcare providers can concentrate on caring for their patients.Sources: